Cook the pasta according to the package directions. Add the asparagus during the last 5 minutes of cooking. Drain.
Meanwhile, heat the salsa in a large skillet over medium heat, stirring frequently until the tomatoes release their juices, 2 to 3 minutes.
Stir in the goat cheese and sugar and heat until smooth. Add the shrimp and fold in gently until heated through, about 2 minutes.
Pour the sauce over the pasta and toss.