Cook the linguine according to the package directions; drain and return to the pot.
In a large skillet, over medium heat, cook the garlic in 2 tablespoons of the olive oil until golden, about 3 minutes.
Add the red pepper flakes and anchovies and cook until the anchovies are dissolved, about 1 minute.
Add the edamame and broth. Increase heat to medium-high and simmer until the edamame are tender, about 5 minutes.
Add the edamame mixture to the pasta and toss until combined. Stir in the parsley and remaining oil. Sprinkle with the cheese, if desired.