Place the shrimp in enough lightly salted water to cover. Bring to a boil. Cover and immediately remove from heat. Set aside 1 minute. Drain and rinse the shrimp under cold water to stop the cooking.
Cut the jalapeños in half lengthwise. Place in a large bowl with the shrimp. Toss with the pickling liquid, lime juice, cilantro, and salt. Cover and refrigerate up to 1 day ahead.