Cook the pasta according to the package directions. Drain and reserve.
Combine the ricotta, lemon zest, and ¼ teaspoon each salt and pepper in a medium bowl. Set aside.
Warm the olive oil with the thyme in a pot over medium until fragrant. Add the garlic, onion, and remaining salt and pepper. Cook over medium until just tender, about 5 minutes. Add the squash and mushrooms; cook, partially covered, until the squash is tender, 10 to 12 minutes. Stir in the kale. Add the broth and simmer 15 minutes.
Stir in the noodles to warm and serve, garnished with the seasoned ricotta and basil.
Easy Homemade Parmesan Broth
Combine 12 oz. Parmesan cheese rinds with 2 yellow onions (sliced), 3 medium carrots (peeled and sliced), 1 smashed garlic clove, and 4 bay leaves in a large pot. Add 5 quarts cold water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, stirring occasionally, until flavorful, 30 minutes. Strain and cool completely. Makes 4½ quarts (18 cups).