What it is: A bacterial infection spread through contact with infected animal urine.
Whom it affects: Dogs.
Possible symptoms: Your dog may be lapping up water and running to the door to be let out at an alarming rate. Subsequent diarrhea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and yellowing of the skin may indicate an escalating infection in the liver.
Treatment: A veterinarian may need to hospitalize your pet to administer antibiotics and replace fluids through an IV, and in extreme cases through dialysis.
Prevention: There is a vaccination for leptospirosis, but it is not part of the list of core vaccinations recommended for all dogs. Talk to your veterinarian about getting the vaccine for your pet, regardless of whether he lives in an urban, suburban, or rural environment.